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怪點子才厲害
讓瘋狂想法變成傑出辦法4原則
無論任何領域,最重大的突破幾乎永遠是那些挑戰傳統思惟的想法;但正因如此,那些想法也最有可能一開始就夭折。如何讓這些看似異想天開的想法發芽茁壯,也就成為至關重要的課題,對老牌企業尤其如此。
2019-07-17 /  903  0
輕鬆聽大師
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目 錄 導 讀 付費內容 延伸閱讀 輕鬆抓重點

What

究竟什麼是「怪點子」?

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最重大的突破出現時不可能完全成形,反而常常是很脆弱的想法,很容易被斥為瘋言瘋語。如果稍一不慎,你或許就此埋葬並遺忘它們而鑄下大錯,因為「怪點子」足以改變世界。


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What

What exactly is a loonshot?

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The most important breakthroughs never come fully formed. Instead, they are typically fragile ideas which readily get dismissed as crazy. If you're not careful, you can bury them and forget them which can be a big mistake. Loonshots can change the world.


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1
第二次世界大戰爆發時,情勢原本對納粹德國大大有利。隨著戰爭進行,德國無法以轟炸迫使英國投降,因而決定利用U型潛艇阻斷從美國送往英國的物資。1941年,430萬噸貨物因此沉沒;1942年,盟軍的航運損失更是高達780萬噸。當時雷達已被研發出來,並且應用在英國的戰役中,但因為體積過於龐大和笨重,而無法裝在船艦或飛機上。感謝您對大師輕鬆讀的愛護,並且全力支持您合理地使用我們為您精心編製的內容。希望未來可以提供您更方便更友善的服務。
1
At the outbreak of the Second World War, the odds would have favored Nazi Germany by a substantial margin. As the war progressed, Germany was unable to bomb Britain into submission so it was decided U-boats would be used to cut off supplies flowing into Britain from the United States. In 1941, 4.3 million tons of cargo were sunk and Allied shipping losses reached 7.8 million tons in 1942. Radar had been developed and used in the Battle of Britain by that time but it was still too big and bulky to install on ships or planes.感謝您對大師輕鬆讀的愛護,並且全力支持您合理地使用我們為您精心編製的內容。希望未來可以提供您更方便更友善的服務。
2
所幸,在第二次世界大戰爆發之前,美國麻省理工學院工程學院院長萬尼瓦爾‧布希曾與富蘭克林.羅斯福總統會面,並指出美國軍方總是一昧製造更多槍支,而不是設法製造更好的武器。布希提議在聯邦政府內部成立一個科學及科技小組,以便探索對贏得戰爭具有重要性的新科技。羅斯福總統同意並成立了美國科學研究與開發辦公室(簡稱OSRD),由萬尼瓦爾‧布希領導,著手探索所有軍方不願資助的遠大構想及未經驗證的科技。感謝您對大師輕鬆讀的愛護,並且全力支持您合理地使用我們為您精心編製的內容。希望未來可以提供您更方便更友善的服務。
2
Fortunately just before World War II had broken out, Vannevar Bush, dean of engineering at MIT, had approached President Franklin Roosevelt and pointed out that the US military's approach was always to make more guns rather than to try and figure out how to make better weapons. Bush proposed setting up a science and technology group within the federal government to explore new technologies that would be critical to winning the coming war. Roosevelt agreed and the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was established. Vannebar Bush headed up the OSRD and he set about exploring all the longshot ideas and unproven technologies that the military were unwilling to fund.感謝您對大師輕鬆讀的愛護,並且全力支持您合理地使用我們為您精心編製的內容。希望未來可以提供您更方便更友善的服務。
3
在6個月內,OSRD與19個工業實驗室及32所大學,簽訂了126項研究計畫。其中一位合作對象是艾佛烈‧李‧盧米斯,這位富有的投資銀行家建造了自己的私人研究實驗室。盧米斯招集了數十位美國最優秀的工程師及物理學家,開始研發微波雷達系統。它比早期使用長波雷達的雷達系統強大許多,新系統也較為輕便,可用於船艦或飛機上。感謝您對大師輕鬆讀的愛護,並且全力支持您合理地使用我們為您精心編製的內容。希望未來可以提供您更方便更友善的服務。
3
Within 6 months the OSRD had 126 research contracts underway with 19 industrial labs and 32 universities. One of those was with Alfred Lee Loomis, a wealthy investment banker who built his own private research lab. Loomis gathered dozens of the country's best engineers and physicists and went to work on developing a microwave radar system. It would be far more powerful than the early radar systems which used long wavelength radar. The new system would also be portable enough to carry on a ship or plane.感謝您對大師輕鬆讀的愛護,並且全力支持您合理地使用我們為您精心編製的內容。希望未來可以提供您更方便更友善的服務。
4
在研究過程中,他們發現美國海軍其實早在1922年便有「無線電波干擾」的初步構想,該想法提供了微波雷達如何運作的有效模式。但海軍從未對此構想深究下去,因為研發需要耗費太多時間,未經驗證的想法也無法得到任何資助。感謝您對大師輕鬆讀的愛護,並且全力支持您合理地使用我們為您精心編製的內容。希望未來可以提供您更方便更友善的服務。
4
As they did their research, they discovered that the US Navy had in fact been sitting on an idea first discovered in 1922 for "radio wave interference" that provided a working model for how a microwave radar could operate. The Navy had never progressed the idea because it would take too long to develop and there was not any funding available for untried ideas.感謝您對大師輕鬆讀的愛護,並且全力支持您合理地使用我們為您精心編製的內容。希望未來可以提供您更方便更友善的服務。
5
到了1943年,盧米斯與科學家團隊在空軍B-24轟炸機上安裝了微波雷達,來進行測試。當航越大西洋的船隊遭到德國潛艇襲擊時,使用新型微波雷達原型機的B-24機組人員很快便能找到潛艇位置,並用深水炸彈及槍砲反擊敵人。光是1943年5月,盟軍就使用新型雷達擊沉了41艘德國U型潛艇,比戰爭前三年擊沉的潛艇數量加總起來還多。短短3個月內,盟軍航運損失減少了95%,德國最高指揮部不得不將U型潛艇撤出大西洋。反言之,這意味著美國能夠向英國輸送充足的裝備,讓盟軍最終得以入侵歐洲。感謝您對大師輕鬆讀的愛護,並且全力支持您合理地使用我們為您精心編製的內容。希望未來可以提供您更方便更友善的服務。
5
By 1943 Loomis and his team of scientists had a microwave radar installed in an Air Force B-24 bomber for testing. When a convoy of ships crossing the Atlantic were attacked by German submarines, the B-24 crew using the new microwave radar prototype were quickly able to locate the subs and attack them with depth charges and guns. In May 1943 alone the Allies sunk 41 German U-boats using the new radar which was more than had been sunk in the first three years of the war combined. Within three months, Allied shipping losses decreased by 95 percent and the German High Command withdrew the U-boats from the Atlantic. That, in turn, meant the United States could then send enough equipment to Britain for the Allies to ultimately launch the invasion of Europe.感謝您對大師輕鬆讀的愛護,並且全力支持您合理地使用我們為您精心編製的內容。希望未來可以提供您更方便更友善的服務。



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